A field and laboratory study of the performance of pedal cycle helmets in real accidents.
C 3362 (In: C 3357) /84 /91 / IRRD 871386
McIntosh, A. & Dowdell, B.
In: Proceedings of the 1992 International IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Impacts, Verona, Italy, September 9-10-11, 1992, p. 51-60, 12 ref.
|Samenvatting||This paper describes a study into real pedal cycle accidents undertaken in Sydney, Australia over a four month period in early 1991. The paper investigates accidents of all severities in which helmets were worn. The sample sources were: (1) accident and emergency departments; (2) the police; (3) the coroners courts; and (4) direct through advertising in cycling magazines and clubs. Accident data, injury data, anthropometric data, and helmets were collected. The helmets were examined in the laboratory for resultant damage, impact location, and other factors. A matching helmet was tested in order to reproduce the observed damage, and to calculate the impact dynamics. A sample of 42 cases was finally examined. Important results are: (i) The most frequently impacted region of the helmet was the frontal/temporal area (67%); (ii) There was a higher incidence of head injury with an Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) equal to or greater than 2, resulting from impact to the temporal region; and (iii) the most frequent injury was AIS 1 injuries to the upper or lower limbs. Nearly all of the soft shell helmets, that is to say those constituted of expanded polystyrene, exhibited a great deal of material cracking including separation. In some cases, the helmets were split into two halves or into multiple pieces. It was not possible to reproduce this damage with the test procedure.|
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