Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to stress in male DUI recidivists.
I E136639 /83 / ITRD E136639
Couture, S. Brown, T.G. Ouimet, M.C. Gianoulakis, C. Tremblay, J. & Carbonneau, R.
Accident Analysis & Prevention. 2008 /01. 40(1) Pp 246-253
|Samenvatting||Cortisol is a stress hormone mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and a psychobiological marker of genetic risk for alcoholismand other high-risk behavioural characteristics. In previous work with driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) recidivists, we uncovered a significant inverse relationship between the frequency of past DUI convictions and salivary cortisol, whose strength surpassed those observed between DUI frequency and measures of alcohol abuse and other DUI-related characteristics. This finding emerged using a methodology not specifically contrived to test this relationship. The goals of this follow-up study were to (a)examine if a standardized stress-induction protocol would produce a significant inverse relationship between cortisol response and number of DUI offences; and (b) clarify whether HPA axis dysregulation could be linked to particular DUI-related behavioural correlates, such as alcohol use severity, sensation seeking, and antisocial features. Thirty male DUI recidivistswere recruited as well as 11 male non-DUI drivers as a comparison group. Results indicated an inverse relationship between DUI frequency and cortisol response (r(39) = -0.36, p = 0.021), as well as a lower cortisol response in DUI offenders than the comparison group (F(1,39) = 5.71, p = 0.022).Finally, for recidivists, hierarchical regression analyses indicated thatexperience seeking (R2 = 0.23, p = 0.008), followed by number of cigarettes smoked daily (?R2 = 0.12, p = 0.031), combined to explain 35% of the variance in cortisol (F(2,29) = 7.26, p = 0.003). These findings indicate that severe recidivism may have psychobiological underpinnings, and that HPAaxis dysregulation appears to be a mechanism common to high-risk behaviours including DUI recidivism, sensation seeking, and cigarette smoking. (A)Reprinted with permission from Elsevier.|
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