Grundlagen zur Kommunikation zwischen automatisierten Kraftfahrzeugen und Verkehrsteilnehmern. [Fundamentals of communication between automated vehicles and road users.] Bericht zum Forschungsprojekt 82.0701 der Bundesanstalt für Strassenwesen BASt.
20210307 ST [electronic version only]
Schaarschmidt, E. Yen, R. Bosch, R. Zwicker, L. Schade, J. & Petzoldt, T.
Bergisch Gladbach, Bundesanstalt für Strassenwesen BASt, 2021, 66 + 203 p., ref.; Berichte der Bundesanstalt für Strassenwesen : Fahrzeugtechnik ; Heft F 138 - ISSN 0943-9307 / ISBN 978-3-95606-570-5
|Samenvatting||Today‘s road traffic is characterised by constant interaction between different road users in order to ensure smooth traffic flow in regulated or unregulated situations. Due to an increasing share of automated vehicles and driving functions in traffic, the interactions between nonautomated road users and automated road users of different levels of automation will inevitably increase successively. This research report is devoted to the question of how today‘s communication between automated and nonautomated road users will change in view of increasing vehicle automation and what possible consequences this will have on road safety and traffic efficiency. The first focus of this project was an analysis of which communication models are suitable for describing the interactions between automated and non-automated road users. The sender-receiver model from Shannon & Weaver (1949) proved to be suitable because its clear elements make it easy to describe the communication process, which is usually short-term and directed in road traffic. In addition, the perspective and communication possibilities of the active car driver or the automatically driving vehicle seem to be the most appropriate. The active driver of a conventional passenger car has a variety of communication means at his disposal for the transmission of information to his environment, as he can make use of both the technical possibilities of his vehicle as well as his human signs. These were classified according to modality, formality, intentionality and selectivity. This classification was included in an extensive collection of interaction scenarios in which (at least) two road users interact with each other, as well as a relevance assessment of the various interaction scenarios with regard to their influence on road safety, traffic flow and traffic climate. Furthermore, possible criteria were derived from theoretical considerations and empirical studies, with the help of which a qualitative evaluation of the means of communication could be carried out depending on the existing traffic situation and the message to be transmitted. The interaction scenarios were then tested to see whether the communication means of a conventional car can also be used by an automated car in mixed traffic conditions. In particular, the focus was on those scenarios that deviate from the standard case according to German Road Traffic Regulations (Straßenverkehrsordnung – StVO) and that cannot be negotiated in today‘s traffic environment using suitable technology-based communication tools. An expert workshop with representatives from the fields of work-, organisational- and traffic psychology with reference to automated driving, among others, initiated a discussion from a scientific point of view as to which new means of communication are possible or necessary as a result of increasing vehicle automation. The consolidation of the scientific contributions from the workshop as well as their comparison with the own results formed the conclusion of the research work. On this basis, recommendations for action for future research and study approaches for the design and evaluation of new forms of communication could be derived from a scientific perspective, which should find their way into further research on questions of vehicle automation. (Author/publisher)|
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