The effects of age on crash risk associated with driver distraction.
20200504 ST [electronic version only]
Guo, F. Klauer, S.G. Fang, Y. Hankey, J.M. Antin, J.F. Perez, M.A. Lee, S.E. & Dingus, T.A.
International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 46 (2017), No. 1 (February), p. 258-265, 33 ref.
|Samenvatting||Driver distraction is a major contributing factor to crashes, which are the leading cause of death for the US population under 35 years of age. The prevalence of secondary-task engagement and its impacts on distraction and crashes may vary substantially by driver age. Driving performance and behaviour data were collected continuously using multiple cameras and sensors in situ for 3542 participant drivers recruited for up to 3 years for the Second Strategic Highway Research Program Naturalistic Driving Study. Secondary-task engagement at the onset of crashes and during normal driving segments was identified from videos. A case–cohort approach was used to estimate the crash odds ratios associated with, and the prevalence of, secondary tasks for four age groups: 16–20, 21–29, 30–64 and 65–98 years of age. Only severe crashes (property damage and higher severity) were included in the analysis. Results showed that secondary-task-induced distraction posed a consistently higher threat for drivers younger than 30 and above 65 when compared with middle-aged drivers, although senior drivers engaged in secondary tasks much less frequently than their younger counterparts. Secondary tasks with high visual–manual demand (e.g. visual–manual tasks performed on cell phones) affected drivers of all ages. Certain secondary tasks, such as operation of in-vehicle devices and talking/singing, increased the risk for only certain age groups. The study concludes that teenaged, young adult drivers and senior drivers are more adversely impacted by secondary-task engagement than middle-aged drivers. Visual–manual distractions impact drivers of all ages, whereas cognitive distraction may have a larger impact on young drivers. (Author/publisher)|
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