Older road users : emerging trends.
20160878 ST [electronic version only]
Manders, S. Herford, A. & Mitchell, K.
Sydney, NSW, AUSTROADS, 2016, VIII + 130 p., 179 ref.; AUSTROADS Research Report AP-R530-16 - ISBN 978-1-925451-39-9
|Samenvatting||The two main objectives of this project were to: * identify trends in older road user crash locations and crash types as well as injury outcomes, help identify whether there are any significant gaps in current road safety strategies or whether these trends are largely driven by demographic shifts; and * inform the development of countermeasures that reduce both the incidence of crashes and the severity of injury outcomes being experienced by older road users. The project incorporated a literature review, analysis of 10 years of crash data from every jurisdiction in Australia and New Zealand, analysis of three years of detailed hospital injury data for older road users in South Australia, analysis of the contributing factors in older road user crashes examined using CASR’s in-depth investigation method, consultations with representatives of all jurisdictions in Australia and New Zealand, and a summary of relevant sections of road safety strategies in a sample of international jurisdictions. Full summaries of the findings of individual study components may be found at the conclusion of Section 2 (crash data analysis), Section 3 (in-depth crash investigation), Section 4 (linked hospital data analysis) and Section 5 (consultation with stakeholders). These individual sections also describe the methods used, and limitations of, the analyses. Section 6 provides a brief synthesis of the overall findings of the project, followed by recommendations for policy and crash countermeasures relevant to older road users. The recommendations are reproduced below. Given the increasing prevalence of medical conditions with age, and the well-recognised contributory role of medical conditions in road crashes, medical fitness to drive is a key issue for older road users. All jurisdictional representatives mentioned fitness to drive initiatives during the consultation process for this project. However, issues related to medical fitness to drive were considered outside of the scope of this study and are not discussed. There are no recommendations related to fitness to drive. Data: Recommendation 1: That older road user crash trends continue to be monitored by the jurisdictions in coming years. Recommendation 2: That the key outcome measures in terms of traffic safety for road users by age group are the overall number of crashes, crashes per head of population for cyclists and pedestrians, and crashes per licensed driver for drivers and riders of motorcycles. Crashes per distance travelled should not be used as a key outcome measure for drivers and riders of motorcycles. Recommendation 3: That jurisdictions consider standardised travel surveys as part of their suite of regular data collection to capture key measures, such as total time travelled, to assist with understanding exposure for road users in different age groups. If so, it may be cost-effective to undertake a scan of survey methods used in other jurisdictions to choose the most suitable option. Recommendation 4: That research be undertaken into geographical variations in the distribution of the older population, and how this affects travel and crash patterns. Injury Risk: Recommendation 5: That there is recognition that the safety and mobility needs of older adults will be optimised if they remain licensed to drive for as long as they are able and feel confident to do so. Recommendation 6: That all educational programs directed at older drivers emphasise the benefits of driving a newer, safer vehicle, aiming for 5 star ANCAP or UCSR safety ratings where possible. Options for retrofitting certain safety features should also be promoted. Recommendation 7: That jurisdictions examine all other possible regulatory and policy-based means of encouraging older drivers to purchase and drive newer, safer vehicles, aiming for 5 ANCAP or UCSR star safety ratings where possible. Recommendation 8: That jurisdictions consider supporting alterations to crash testing protocols that incorporate the needs of older adults. The Risk to Older Pedestrians: Recommendation 9: That jurisdictions continue to install and retrofit infrastructure that protects pedestrians in areas where there is a high risk of pedestrian crashes, such as areas of high pedestrian activity, and especially areas frequented by older pedestrians. Recommendation 10: That jurisdictions consider setting speed limits in areas of high pedestrian activity, especially areas frequented by older pedestrians, with reference to the high injury risk of older pedestrians. Recommendations 11: That jurisdictions encourage the testing and evaluation of in-vehicle technologies designed to prevent collisions with pedestrians. Recommendation 12: That, if evaluations demonstrate likely benefits, jurisdictions take steps to encourage the uptake of pedestrian collision prevention technologies in vehicles. Recommendation 13: That jurisdictions monitor the outcomes of various policy developments concerning mobility scooters so that an evidence base can be used for future initiatives in regard to their use. Recommendation 14: That jurisdictions make efforts to ensure that those purchasing mobility scooters receive necessary information about selection, manner of use, road rules and health assessment related to mobility scooter use. Crash Factors: Recommendation 15: That jurisdictions consider the implementation of a program of improving safety at intersections through reductions in intersection complexity, including the elimination of right turns requiring gap acceptance decisions. Recommendation 16: That jurisdictions consider the implementation of a program of improving safety at intersections through reductions in speed limits and the use of traffic calming measures such as plateaus. Recommendation 17: That, in light of new road design practices that are emerging in relation to speed management and intersection design, the guides developed for Austroads concerned with the safe design of roads for older road users be updated. Alterations to driving habits and licence status: Recommendation 18: That educational programs directed at older road user safety incorporate a discussion of self-regulation, emphasising the benefits of avoiding difficult driving situations, the capacity for those no longer in the workforce to do so, and that many other older adults do it (i.e. it is a normative behaviour). Recommendation 19: That educational programs directed at older road user safety incorporate a discussion of assisting others to transition from driving, with an emphasis on the need for family and friends to assist with meeting mobility needs. Recommendation 20: In light of the difficulty experienced by those ceasing driving who do not have family and friends to assist with the transition, jurisdictions should support the development of resources and alternative transport options to assist with the ongoing mobility for these older adults. Recommendation 21: That educational programs directed at older road user safety incorporate a discussion of the need to plan well in advance for retirement from driving, so that a smooth transition can be made to alternative means of safely maintaining mobility. Co-Operation Between Government Departments: Recommendation 22: That jurisdictions consider the implementation of processes by which different government departments can collaborate on policy development in regard to ageing and transport. (Author/publisher)|
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