Dodehoekproblematiek tussen vrachtauto's en fietsers : analyse van dodehoekongevallen : kenmerken, oorzaken en potentiële maatregelent. Master thesis Delft University of Technology, Department Transport, Infrastructure and Logistics.
20151440 ST [electronic version only]
Bruin, D. de
Delft, Technische Universiteit Delft TUD, Faculteit Technische Bestuurskunde / Leidschendam, Stichting Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek Verkeersveiligheid SWOV, 2008, 144 p., 23 ref.
|Samenvatting||Blind spot problems between lorries and cyclists; analysis of blind spot accidents: characteristics, causes and measures. By the time of the mandatory introduction of blind spot mirrors and cameras per 2003, a large reduction of deaths among cyclists from blind spot crashes between lorries and cyclist in the Netherlands occurred (six in 2002 and seven in 2003). After that, the number of deaths increased again. The number of deaths among cyclist in 2004-2006 was on the same level as the number in 1997-2001 (with 15-21 death cyclist a year). It seems that the introduction of the blind spot mirror had only a temporary effect. The question is how blind spot accidents arise and which measures can be effective. The goal of this report is to analyse the causes of blind spot accidents between lorries and cyclists and to determine potential measures to decrease the number of blind spot accidents structurally. Crash analysis from serious blind spot accidents (i.e. with deaths or to the hospital) gives the following characteristics. The accidents happened inside urban areas (for 90%), during the day (97%), at dry weather and day light (90%). The most vulnerable age groups were younger that 18 years or older than 60 years. Female cyclist were 1.5 times more involved than male. The manoeuvre of the accident that happened most frequently (77%) was with a right turning lorry and a cyclist continuing straight ahead. This happened in various ways: 1) accelerating lorry from standstill with a cyclist who came up alongside, 2) accelerating lorry and cyclist from standstill, with the position of the cyclist at the side or right before the lorry and 3) driving lorries and cyclist on a roundabout or main road. Accidents with crossing cyclist also happened (14% of the accidents). This happened v^th cyclist from the right, when the driving lorry passed a bilateral cycle path and with cyclist from the left, when the driving lorry approached the main road. The position on the road of cyclists during the accidents were almost identical divided into on a free situated cycle path, on a cycle path and on the road. In 52% of the accidents the traffic was regulated by traffic light, in 48% by priority rules. The point of contact of the lorry with the cyclist was right before (35%), middle before (35%) or at the right flank (26%). All lorries vflth the point of contact at the front side of the lorry had to deal with a high cabin (height of 1.9-2.4 meter). From the crash analysis and research of the awareness of drivers and cyclists of the blind spot, several causes of the accidents can be indicated. The causes are related to the vehicle-man components: 1) The truck driver has a lack of the field of vision around the cabin (due to the height of the cabin), right before (due to the frame of the windscreen and the position of the mirrors), at the right flank (due to a wrong configuration of the mirror) and alongside when turning to the right. This lack of the field of vision makes it difficult to execute the driving task in a safe way. 2) The driver is not able to manage continuously all the mirrors, the remaining blind spot and other traffic participants. 3) Inattention of the driver can lead to unawareness of the cyclist. 4) Without front mirror or camera, the driver is not able to do a final check before turning to the right. 5) Cyclists have insufficient knowledge of the blind spot of lorries. 6) Cyclists have right of way before the lorry and take the right of way (or are focussed on the green traffic light, unaware of (the danger of) the right turning lorry. With the current traffic rules, the drivers carries the responsibility of the problems with the blind spot. He has to give right of way to the cyclist. But the driver also has to deal with a lack of the field of vision and a high load and is not able to carry out his driving task on a safe manner. The cyclist has a low load, has to get right of way from the lorry, but is vulnerable. This division of responsibility and driving task leads to the problem of the blind spot. A number of measures are necessary to decrease the number of blind spot accidents structurally. In the short term, the following measures are recommended: 1) Experiments with and introduction of Lexguard (a detection-system that assists drivers to detect cyclists around the truck). After real-world experiments, a technical optimal detection system can be introduced in short term. 2) Introduction of a truck with a bus front (with a direct field of vision around the cabin and with a useful position of the mirrors). 3) Further introduction of the front mirror or -camera. Due to which, the driver would be able to do a final check before turning to the right. 4) Training of drivers. The following driving skills have to be improved: a) anticipated driving and improved awareness, b) a standardized method to detect cyclists in the blind spot, c) a efficient usage and a good configuration of the mirrors, d) a standardized method to do a final check before turning to the right. 5) Information to cyclists about the blind spot. It is Important for cyclists to know the limitations of the truck driver and to learn how to deal with these limitations. 6) Taking care of the configuration of the mirrors, to provide a extra blind spot, which is unnecessary. In the long term, the following measures are recommended: 1) Development of a safe distribution vehicle. In this vehicle, the remaining blind spot is minimal. After having carried out a number of experiments and tests the vehicle can be implemented in inner cities and living areas. On the long term this vehicle can replace the trucks with high cabins. 2) Development of guidelines that can decrease the consequences of a crash. In a series of experiments and tests these guidelines can be developed. On the middle long term the measures can be implemented on trucks. (Author/publisher)|
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