SWOV Catalogus

337104

Drinking drivers and drug use on weekend nights in the United States.
20130341 ST [electronic version only]
Voas, R.B. Lacey, J.H. Jones, K. Scherer, M. & Compton, R.
Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2012, December 18 [Epub ahead of print], 10 p., 36 ref.

Samenvatting Studies of drinking drivers in alcohol-related crashes have shown that high breath-alcohol concentrations (BrACs) are associated with illegal drug use. Until the 2007 National Roadside Survey (NRS), the prevalence of drugs among drinking drivers on U.S. roads was unknown. Using NRS data, the authors explore how many drivers with positive BrACs may also be using drugs and their significance to current drinking-driving enforcement procedures. Based on a stratified, random sample covering the 48 U.S. contiguous states, a surveys was conducted on weekend nights from July-November 2007. Of the 8384 eligible motorists contacted, 85.4% provided a breath sample; 70.0%, an oral fluid sample; and 39.1%, a blood sample. The authors conducted regression analyses on 5912 participants with a breath test and an oral fluid or blood test. The dependent variables of interest were illegal drugs (cocaine, cannabinoids, street drugs, street amphetamines, and opiates) and medicinal drugs (prescription and over-the-counter). 10.5% of nondrinking drivers were using illegal drugs, and 26 to 33% of drivers with illegal BrACs ([more or equal] 0.08g/dL) were using illegal drugs. Medicinal drug use was more common among nondrinking drivers (4.0%) than among drivers with illegal BrACs (2.4%). The significant relationship between an illegal BrAC and the prevalence of an illegal drug suggests as many as 350,000 illegal drug-using drivers are arrested each year for DWI by U.S. alcohol-impaired driving enforcement. These drug-using drivers need to be identified and appropriate sanctions/treatment programs implemented for them in efforts to extend per se laws to unapprehended drug users. (Author/publisher)
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