Evaluating ADA technologies in the Netherlands by means of demonstration projects and micro-simulation modelling.
C 43445 (In: C 43429 CD-ROM) /85 / ITRD E137232
Schermers, G. & Malone, K.M.
In: Proceedings of the 18th workshop on the Technical, Social and Psychological Aspects of Transport Telematics and Safety, the International Cooperation on Theories and Concepts in Traffic Safety ICTCT, Helsinki, Finland, 27-28 October 2005, 8 ref.
|Samenvatting||At the beginning of the 1990's the philosophy of Sustainable Safety was developed. This resulted in the implementation of the Start-up programme, a pro-active road safety programme that entailed re-classifying the road network, expanding 30km/h urban residential areas and 60km/h rural areas, assigning priority on arterials, safety for cyclists and bicycles, roundabouts etc. Evaluations suggest that these measures have significantly contributed to a further 7% reduction in traffic fatalities over the period 1998-2003. However, the most dangerous roads, namely the rural and urban distributor roads, have not been re-engineered. Since these roads are especially difficult and require large-scale investment and large areas of land, it is not anticipated that all roads will ultimately comply with the requirements of sustainable safety. Furthermore, it is not realistic to expect all roads to be engineered in such a way that road user behaviour always complies with intended behaviour. Considering the limitations in terms of finances, traffic management and engineering measures, and innovation is going to play an all-important role in providing future solutions (for example 3-lane roads, crash barriers, ADA/AVG, ISA etc). Specific attention will need to be paid to heavy goods transport in the future. Projections indicate that heavy goods vehicle (HGV) traffic will double by 2020 and will constitute 40% of the total traffic on the major road network. The consequences of accidents involving HGV are well known. To compound the problem in the Netherlands is the fact that the country has an ageing society which means that in time society as a whole becomes more vulnerable. Because of these developments, road safety is being seriously threatened, especially since road accidents involving HGV almost always result in fatalities or serious injuries. In the future road designers and the automobile industry will need to consider these matters when designing roads or designing vehicles with advanced driver support systems. It is important to stimulate developments in the vehicle sector, especially with respect to incar safety devices for vehicle occupants but also to mitigate the effects of accidents involving vulnerable road users. Specific attention needs to be paid to developments with respect to advanced vehicle guidance systems (especially collision warning and avoidance systems). Although effects are generally assumed to be positive, policy makers must be aware of any potential negative effects and therefore research into causative factors of vehicles with such technology needs to be conducted. Amongst others this paper discusses the results of the second phase of the Dutch FOT examining the effects of lateral support systems [AVV, 2001], namely the traffic effects of the Chauffeur Assistant (CA) Driver Assistance System (AVV, 2004). The research included a literature study, the (changes to) driver behaviour with CA assessed in the TNO Human Factors' driving simulator, and finally the incorporation of these results into the TNO Inro MIXIC traffic simulation model. The model was used to assess the traffic flow effects of large scale CA implementation in the HGV sector. The CA control algorithms were developed and adapted by TNO Automotive and TNO Human Factors and based on information provided by Daimler-Chrysler in terms of the HMI and functionality of the CA. Overall it is concluded that the introduction of Chauffeur Assistant in the HGV sector, assuming its use is limited to the primary road network of the Netherlands, will have no negative effects on traffic flow. The results of the MIXIC simulations do not suggest that significant changes will occur in any of the variables describing the quality of traffic flow (travel times, speeds, density etc.) and traffic safety (shockwaves, TTC, headways etc.) should CA be introduced in the HGV sector. The drivers participating in the driving simulator study did indicate that their perceived workload decreased when CA was used. As mentioned, compensating behaviour in these cases is not yet known, but worth examining in the future. The drivers participating in the driving simulator study did indicate, though, that their perceived workload decreased when CA was used. As mentioned, compensating behaviour in these cases is not yet known, but worth examining in the future. The effectiveness of CA system could significantly be enhanced if the system were applicable in other circumstances as well: whether by equipping other types of vehicles, such as passenger vehicles, with the system, or by extending the operational range to below the standard minimum speed by integrating a stop&go system in the CA. For the covering abstract see ITRD E137489.|
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