SWOV Catalogus


Making adaptive cruise control (ACC) limits visible.
C 41688 [electronic version only]
Seppelt, B.D. & Lee, J.D.
International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, Vol. 65 (2007), No. 3 (March), p. 192-205, 42 ref.

Samenvatting Previous studies have shown adaptive cruise control (ACC) can compromise driving safety when drivers do not understand how the ACC functions, suggesting that drivers need to be informed about the capabilities of this technology. This study applies ecological interface design (EID) to create a visual representation of ACC behavior, which is intended to promote appropriate reliance and support effective transitions between manual and ACC control. The EID display reveals the behavior of ACC in terms of time headway (THW), time to collision (TTC), and range rate. This graphical representation uses emergent features that signal the state of the ACC. Two failure modes—exceedance of braking algorithm limits and sensor failures—were introduced in the driving contexts of traffic and rain, respectively. A medium-fidelity driving simulator was used to evaluate the effect of automation (manual, ACC control), and display (EID, no display) on ACC reliance, brake response, and driver intervention strategies. Drivers in traffic conditions relied more appropriately on ACC when the EID display was present than when it was not, proactively disengaging the ACC. The EID display promoted faster and more consistent braking responses when braking algorithm limits were exceeded, resulting in safe following distances and no collisions. In manual control, the EID display aided THW maintenance in both rain and traffic conditions, reducing the demands of driving and promoting more consistent and less variable car-following performance. These results suggest that providing drivers with continuous information about the state of the automation is a promising alternative to the more common approach of providing imminent crash warnings when it fails. Informing drivers may be more effective than warning drivers. (Author/publisher)
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