SWOV Catalogus


Concentration of drugs in blood of suspected impaired drivers.
C 33506 [electronic version only]
Augsburger, M. Donzé, N. Ménétrey, A. Brossard, C. Sporkert, F. Giroud, C. & Mangin, P.
Forensic Science International, Vol. 153 (2005), No. 1 (October 4), p. 11-15, 15 ref.

Samenvatting Analytical records concerning 440 living drivers suspected of driving under the influence of drug (DUID) were collected and examined during a 2 years period ranging from 2002 to 2003 in canton de Vaud, Valais, Jura and Fribourg (Switzerland). This study included 400 men (91%) and 40 women (9%). The average age of the drivers was 28+/-10 years (minimum 16 and maximum 81). One or more psychoactive drugs were found in 89% of blood samples. Half of cases (223 of 440, 50.7%) involved consumption of mixtures (from 2 to 6) of psychoactive drugs. The most commonly detected drugs in whole blood were cannabinoids (59%), ethanol (46%), benzodiazepines (13%), cocaine (13%), amphetamines (9%), opiates (9%) and methadone (7%). Among these 440 cases, 11-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) was found in 59% (median 25ng/ml (1-215ng/ml)), Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in 53% (median 3ng/ml (1-35ng/ml)), ethanol in 46% (median 1.19g/kg (0.14-2.95g/kg)), benzoylecgonine in 13% (median 250ng/ml (29-2430ng/ml)), free morphine in 7% (median 10ng/ml (1-111ng/ml)), methadone in 7% (median 110ng/ml (27-850ng/ml)), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in 6% (median 218ng/ml (10-2480ng/ml)), nordiazepam in 5% (median 305ng/ml (30-1560ng/ml)), free codeine in 5% (median 5ng/ml (1-13ng/ml)), midazolam in 5% (median 44ng/ml (20-250ng/ml)), cocaine in 5% (median 50ng/ml (15-560ng/ml)), amphetamine in 4% (median 54ng/ml (10-183ng/ml)), diazepam in 2% (median 200ng/ml (80-630ng/ml)) and oxazepam in 2% (median 230ng/ml (165-3830ng/ml)). Other drugs, such as lorazepam, zolpidem, mirtazapine, methaqualone, were found in less than 1% of the cases. (Author/publisher)
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