Driver distraction and crashes : an assessment of crash databases and review of the literature.
C 30305 [electronic version only]
Eby, D.W. & Kostyniuk, L.P.
Ann Arbor, MI, The University of Michigan, Transportation Research Institute UMTRI, 2003, V + 38 p., 78 ref.; UMTRI Technical Report ; UMTRI-2003-12
|Samenvatting||A distracted driver has delayed recognition of information necessary for safe driving because an event in the vehicle or outside of the vehicle has attracted the driver's attention. A distracted driver may be less able to respond appropriately to changing road and traffic conditions leading to an increased likelihood of crash. Development of technology to reduce distraction-related crashes is proceeding, including the development of a workload/distraction management system in the SAfety VEhicle(s) using adaptive Interface Technology (SAVE-IT) program. In order to determine the potential benefits of systems such as SAVE-IT, it is necessary to understand the crash scenarios in which driver distraction is a likely contributor. This report has two purposes. The first is to review and assess available crash databases to determine which variables are available, feasible, and appropriate for determining distraction-related crash scenarios. The second purpose is to investigate a variety of other distraction-related scenarios in crash databases and those that may not appear in crash records directly, but, nonetheless, are likely to be related to distraction-related crashes. The crash databases reviewed are: the National Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System; The National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System; the Fatality Analysis Reporting System; the Highway Safety Information System; and regional geographic information system databases. The report examines five crash scenarios to determine the relative frequency of distraction-related crashes by crash scenario: single vehicle run off the road; rear-end; intersection/crossing path; lane-change/merge; and head-on. This review also covers a number of distracted-driving scenarios both outside and inside the vehicle including: exterior incidents; looking at scenery; passenger interactions; adjusting entertainment systems; listening to music; cellular phone use; use of route-guidance systems; eating/drinking; adjusting vehicle controls; objects moving in the vehicle; and smoking. Also presented is a framework for rank-ordering the relative contribution of these scenarios to distraction-related crash risk. (Author/publisher)|
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